Why Google Stores Billions of Lines of Code in a Single Repository – In this read we are going to explain to you in a simple way why Google stores billions of lines of code in a single respiratory and what is Google monolithic Software respiratory.

We will simplify the concept part by part including the advantages of monolithic source code repositories, and why Google does not use Git. So, without further ado, let’s get started.

Why Google stores billions of lines of code in a single respiratory

Google Repository Scales

So let’s talk about scale first, some of these numbers have never been shared outside of Google before Google’s monolithic source code repository, which is used by about 95% of Google’s engineers, makes it clear Form is very large and is not able to prove it.

It is probably the largest single repository in use anywhere in the world, so the Google codebase has about 1 billion files and has a history of about 35 million commits. It also includes files that have been removed in the latest revision and include files that have been copied to the release branches, so on average on a weekday, about 45,000 commits are in the Google repository.

Read More: How to Make Google Apps More Useful For Teamwork

Single shared repository stability and performance is important for thousands of users around the world who commit 45,000 a day, on top of that there are billions of reading file requests per day, we use the system during peak traffic with a QPS of around 800,000 and a QPS Look at an average of about 500,000 every weekday.

Google System and Workflow

So before we come to the next point. To make working with this model productive, you need to know a little about the systems and workflows used in Google.

Developers in Google Workflow make an individual copy of the files in the repository before storing these files in a developer-owned workspace. Developers edit the code in their workspaces and must undergo code review before being returned to the central repository.

Most developers can see and propose changes to files anywhere in the entire repository and the way we maintain this prudence is through code review in the owners’ concept, so the Google repository needs a tree structure and a set of each directory in the tree.

Owners who can decide whether to modify files in their directory are allowed and therefore these owners are usually people who work on projects contained in directories in the respective directories.

Advantage of Monolithic Repository

Here is a high-level list of benefits of working with a unified repository integrated version. This is the official version of the file, they are all in one repository. Extensive code sharing and reuse is a set of very useful libraries developed at Google time when a new project starts.

They often have a lot of what they need. There is no need to re-invent already built and wheel simplified dependency management.

Engineers do not need straight forks to develop shared libraries or strange merging of copied code reserves beyond the boundaries of the team. it is never necessary to decide that there are liquids.

If a decision is made then consolidate the system or change the code. Ownership is very easy to do slowly. Refactoring and reorganizing the codebase can be moved from one project to another. Dependencies can be updated to atoms. Change the entire history on it without breaking anything.

Why does Google not use Git?

A crazy system named Piper, which manages their code. There is only one Piper repository that helps Google manage millions of code. Different projects have different subdirectories in the same repository of Google.

There is no other way to clone the entire repository on your computer. But now the standard way of handling billions of codes is somewhat better known as Clients in the Cloud or CTC. Basically, the entire repository is kept as a virtual file system, and you can do whatever you want with it.

The only Piper repository branch is where Google can try to fix a merger conflict in such a large repository, as there is no other way to fix it. There is only one way to fix a merge conflict that terminates branching or merging. Piper supports very limited branching, so it is used only upon release.

There is only one version of everything which is the latest version, which will come after the update. The latest version of anything comes with fresh, new, and modern information. No older version is retained for items that have not been updated to the new versions.

If you make inconsistent changes backward to an API, then you have to update everything that uses your API. Which you can do because everything is in the same repository. You can also use an automated tool for this.

What is Google monolithic Software respiratory?

The monolithic applications are designed to handle multiple related tasks. They are typically complex applications built with tightly coupled functions.

For example, consider a monolithic application in any industry such as SaaS. It can have a web server, a load balancer, a management system, a payment function, and a scalability system.

Now big companies are producing more source code than ever before. Given the rapidly growing large codebase. Software engineering experience provided by various approaches to source code management is worth investigating.

Larger companies with multiple products usually have multiple sources. A large number of dependencies between internal libraries, frameworks, and projects from completely separate parts of the organization. Successful companies organize these dependencies and the framework is now important for the pace of development.


Now you might know Why Google Stores Billions of Lines of Code in a Single Repository. Also as we have explained in detail. Now it comes to Monolithic Software.

Monolithic is a complex system for building applications. This does not make it easy for organizations to integrate data from their systems.

Most likely, you only have to access your data within the monolith. For example, a monolithic analytics system consisting of data integration, ETL data pipeline, a data warehouse and analytics software.

It is more likely that you cannot provide tools that allow organizations to access their own data to integrate with other systems.

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