Understanding Anions in Atoms
When we simplify, we comprehend the science around us better? We can start by understanding an atom, the smallest particle is known to exist. It is the smallest in the chemical element. It has all the chemical properties that make up an element. Protons, Electrons, and neutrons are the essential elements which make up an atom
Now, let us try and understand better what are Cations and Anions.
What are Cations and Anions?
What is an ion?
Ion, as we know is a particle with an unequal number of protons and electrons. This means that there will be a particle with a charge. If the particle has more protons than electrons the charge becomes positive. Likewise, if the particle has more electrons than protons, the charge will be negative. Simply put, Cations and Anions are both ions.
Positive charge ions are Cations and negative charged are Anions. Cations are formed typically by metals and similarly, non-metals form the Anions.
Examples of Anions and Cations
- Fluorine as a non-metal example
Simply put Fluorine has 7 Valence electrons. It needs one more to complete the octet.
- Sodium as a metal example
Sodium has 1 valence electron. When sodium gives up the valence electron, it turns into a metal cation. Since it has more protons than electrons, it is with a positive charge. Metals give electrons and they are electro-positive elements.
Breaking it down
- The Octet Rule
If we understand the Octet Rule, it will be easier to decipher the Anion and Cation mentioned. To begin with, what is it? This rule helps us predict how atoms will form chemical bonds to make molecules.
First of all, the atoms, when it constitutes 8 electrons it becomes an Octet. It is in their highest energy level. Before starting the rule, it is important to know that there are exceptions to the rule. According to Octet Rule, the atoms will gain or lose electrons to have a full outer shell of 8e-, 8 electrons.
There are 8 numbers of groups, and these groups help tell the number of the outer shell. You can understand that group 1 has 1 outer shell. Similarly, group 2 will have 2 numbers of an outer shell and so on. All elements desire to have an 8-number outer shell. Noble gases have 8 number of the outer shell. Hence, the gaining and losing of electrons are done to get an Octet.
What is gaining and losing?
If the elements have more than 4 Valence, you will gain electrons. And if you have less than 4 Valence, you will lose electrons. So simply put, if you are more than halfway to eight you will gain and lose if less.
Another fact to revisit is that elements that are greater than 4 Valance will fill up the Outer Shell. Same way, elements that are less than 4 Valence will fall into the opposite of the outer. They will fall to the inner area.
Valence can be understood as a concept in reaction. Let us start by analysing Electronic Configuration. This is the arrangement of the electrons in the shell.
- The first shell is the innermost shell. It can have a maximum number of 2 electrons. Moving on to the second shell and so on forth, it can hold a maximum of up to 8 electrons. Therefore, what you can expect is that the outmost shell will be able to hold 8 electrons. It is also called the Octet State and is considered a stable state.
- Since the atoms want to grab a maximum number of electrons, as per the shell it happens so. Meaning it will consist of electrons as much as their particular shell can accommodate.
- For example, Helium has two electrons on the shell. Neon on the other hand has a different number of electrons in a different shell. The outermost shell of the Neon has 8 electrons. That is considered the Octet state. However, there cannot be 8 electrons in one shell, if it is the innermost shell.
- Ideally, we can understand that the innermost shell only accommodates 2. Hence, the remaining electrons will be in the outer shell. Thus, this indicated that it does not always result in an 8-electron situation.
Understanding the Concept Better
The concept of Valency can be understood easily. We know that atoms are always in a struggle to achieve a stable state. This is where the concept of bond formation is introduced. Bond formations are the giving, taking, and sharing of electrons. This capacity is provided by Valency.
The breaking down of the characteristics will now be clearer for you to understand. Since we have come across the Valence and the Octet. It will be simpler to catch an idea of Cations and Anions. This as a result helps us grasp the idea of Anions in Atoms. Let us move on to the Weak Bases and see the Anion reactions.
What are Weak Bases?
The bases that partially dissociate after dissolution in water are generally described as Weak Bases. This means that it does not ionize entirely when in water solution. This is as opposed to strong acid where complete dissociation occurs.
Let us take an example of a weak acid, vinegar. When mixed with an aqua solution, it will dissociate. The molecules will dissociate but the ions will combine to provide an acid molecule. The weak acid provides a lesser amount of H+ ions resulting in less damage capability to humans. Strong acids provide more H+ ions, resulting in a more dangerous outcome for humans.
Which of the following anions act as weak bases in solution that we can analyse for a better understanding?
The Anions acting as weak bases in the solution are mentioned here.
- Ammonium Hydroxide
- Zinc Hydroxide
Bases as we know are what help neutralize the acidic factor. Bases are protonic acceptors. This is done so when reacted with hydrogen ions. You can also determine whether the Anion is basic or neutral, and then understand Anion bases. When you add an H+, it helps determine whether Anion is neutral or basic. After the inclusion of H+, if the Anion behaves as a weak base, it means a weak acid is created. This helps us clarify the weak bases in the solution.
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